8) Administration of medications is a major component of the enrolled nurse’s role within clinical settings. Medication administration is a high-risk activity that requires a consistently accurate approach by the enrolled nurse in any workplace. List six factors you need to consider when calculating medication dosages.
9) Paediatric medication calculations have high risks due to
- Immature organ function to metabolise drugs
- Mg/kg doses require calculations
- Small doses required: a small change may make a big difference clinically
- Dosage forms are usually in adult sizes
- Liquid formulations need to be measured and/or diluted
10) Emily is a 4-year-old girl who has Cystic Fibrosis. Emily has been admitted to the hospital for the treatment of a chest infection. Emily has been ordered IV antibiotics.
Draw conclusions from the given information and describe the factors you need to consider when calculating her medication.
4) Prescribing for older patients presents unique challenges. Many medications need to be used with special caution because of age-related changes in pharmacokinetics (i.e., absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) and pharmacodynamics (the physiologic effects of the drug).
When prescribing for older adults, particular care must be taken in determining drug dosages. An increased volume of distribution may result from the proportional increase in body fat relative to skeletal muscle with aging. Decreased drug clearance may result from the natural decline in renal function with age, even in the absence of renal disease. Larger drug storage reservoirs and decreased clearance of prolonged drug half-lives lead to increased plasma drug concentrations in older people.
Mr Howard King, the 93-year-old frail man, has been prescribed paracetamol PRN. Discuss safe paracetamol use in the elderly.
11) Mr Howard King has been admitted to hospital. He has a dose administration aid that he has brought with him; however, he is not sure of the contents. What would you do in this circumstance? How would you explain to Mr King how the medication is administered in the hospital if you are to use hospital stock?