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Adolescence is the age range between 13 and 19, the time when..

Adolescence is the age range between 13 and 19, the time when children are transitioning from school-age to adulthood. During this time, they will experience many mental and physical changes unique to adolescence.

One external stressor unique to adolescents is social pressure. Adolescents have an increased desire for peer acceptance and a heightened affinity to participating in more risk-taking behaviors that can lead to teen pregnancy, substance abuse, involvement in relationship violence, and contracting sexually transmitted infections (Falkner, 2022). Substance use disorder affects as estimated 164.8 million Americans age 12 and up, with roughly 2.2 million adolescents between 12 and 17 having admitted to drinking alcohol (Mackavey & Kearney, 2020).

Another external stressor unique to adolescents is bullying. This can take the form of in person bullying or cyberbullying. With the introduction of social media, now more than ever, it is easier for teenagers to interact with one another, but unfortunately opens the door to cyberbullying. Cyberbullying can lead to depression and teen suicide, with suicide as being the second leading cause of death in children between the age of 10 and 24 (Falkner, 2022). In addition, 20-30% of students admit to being either the perpetrator or victim of bullying (Falkner, 2022).

There are several examples of support or coping mechanisms that can be introduced to adolescents to help them during this time in their lives. Assistance can include education on the topics of sexual health, substance abuse, relationship violence, and bullying. Sex education can help reduce the incidences of teen pregnancies and reduce levels of sexually transmitted infections (Falkner, 2022). Programs and education can be offered for typical teenage stressors before the stress levels becomes too overwhelming (Falkner, 2022). In addition, resources should also be offered to teachers, parents, and healthcare providers to identify early warning signs of depression or suicide ideation (Falkner, 2022).