An invasion of dangerous microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, is what causes an infection. These pathogens trigger the immune system reaction in the body by increasing the cardiac output, as the body needed more blood flow to carry and send the white blood cells to attack and destroy the bacteria and remove them for the body. Meanwhile, When the heart beats faster, more oxygen to be delivered to the muscles. To meet the increased demand for oxygen, the brain sends signals to the lungs and diaphragm to inhale and exhale at a greater rate, thus getting increased oxygen. Therefore, the elevation of Jack’s WCC level, Heart rate, and his shallow and raid respiratory rate are presenting as the result. Furthermore, when the white blood cells work faster to try and fight off the infection. The increase in these white blood cells affects the hypothalamus, makes Jack’s body temperature increase, and causes fever. In the process of immune system responding, the cytokines (a type of signal protein) will dilate the blood vessels at the site of the infection to allow more blood to pass through the area, carrying the cells and mediators needed to fight the bacteria. Therefore, vasodilation decreases systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and reduces blood pressure. When a virus infects bone marrow stromal cells and hematopoietic stem cells in the body, it will lead to hematopoietic defects and thrombocytopenia, thus reducing the level of platelet.
Bleeding reduces the amount of iron in the body so that the bone marrow is not able to increase production of new red blood cells to replace those lost. Red blood cells contain a protein called hemoglobin, which is responsible for transporting oxygen to the various tissues throughout the body. When there is a reduction in RBC, it leads to a decrease in the amount of hemoglobin in the blood; the blood’s capacity to carry oxygen is also reduced. Therefore, Jack is experiencing a low oxygen saturation level of 94% even though he’s on 4 L of oxygen via the nasal prong. To satisfy the increased demand for oxygen, the brain sends signals to the lungs and diaphragm to inhale and exhale at a faster pace, resulting in higher levels of oxygen. A decrease in blood volume during hemorrhage results in a decrease in central venous pressure and cardiac filling. As a result, cardiac output is decreased. Because cardiac output, venous pressure, and systemic vascular resistance all influence arterial pressure. Therefore, a reduction in cardiac output can lead to hypotension. Moreover, the adrenal glands produce more norepinephrine when the cardiac output is insufficient. It travels through the bloodstream and triggers the rapid heart rate.
Please have a look if this is the correcy explaination of the physiological change of infection affected to the body and hemorrhage affected the body vital signs.
If not correct or not accuratly, please change it to the correct way. can u please try to make the physiological affect of these two disease even more detailed?
why infection causing increased in cardiac output? is that because of the stress hormone or something else?
How does hypotension happen during infection? is that because the cytokines (a type of signal protein) will dilate the blood vessels at the site of the infection to allow more blood to pass through the area, carrying the cells and mediators needed to fight the bacteria. Therefore, vasodilation decreases systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and reduces blood pressure.
or because of some fluid shift from the damaged blood stream? I am not sure which is the correct answer.
and why infection causing core temperature increased? what trigger the hypothalamus?
why both increased and decreased of cardiac output an both cause tachycardia?